Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Runaway Girl by Carissa Phelps Essay In Runaway Girl by Carissa Phelps the reader knows from the beginning that the main character, Carissa, cant stand discipline and runs away when authority steps in her way. Nevertheless, she creates friendships with people she thinks she can trust, but only ends up getting hurt by their dishonesty and greediness. Carissa is a rebellious, stubborn, independent child who grows into something amazing after all the dramatic tragedies that took part in her life. Carissa is rebellious from the start. She transitions from being scared to go to school on the first day, to yelling a few weeks later, Ã¢â¬Å"Fuck youÃ¢â¬ , to a substitute teacher. Not to mention Carissas hormones are kicking in and shes crushing on this kid Fernando on the football team and, ends up staying out all night just to come home to getting yelled at and getting grounded. Carissa doesnt agree with such punishment so in turn , she ends up running away. The worst of Carissas deception is her plan on figuring out wheres shes going to stay, what shes going to eat, her struggle of fighting to stay alive, and more importantly what the cops have to say about her running away. As a child Carissa had poor judgment on the real world. When she was on her own, she thought that she was invincible and nothing bad could ever happen to her until, she met Icey. He changed Carissas life in less than a heart beat. Carissa went from being the boss of herself while being a runaway to being a black mans prostitute at the age of 12. Carissa wasnt in control of her own well-being anymore, Icey was. Carissa merely followed Iceys instructions especially because she despised him so greatly, but she thought that he cared about her because he fed her and bought her things and talked to her ever so sweetly, compared to the other girls. All of this was stopped when the people Carissa despised ,for busting her every time she ran away, came to her rescue when Icey screwed up by stealing a car. She soon learned that authority was just there to help her and free her of Iceys control. At juvenile hall Carissa met someone that helped change her life forever. His name was Ron. He was the counselor at Wakefield and just by handing a spiral notebook over to Carissa and telling her to write in it and Ã¢â¬Å"tell her storyÃ¢â¬ , Carissas life was soon on its way to a new beginning.
Monday, January 20, 2020
Bosch fuel tube report On August 9th, Bosch realized a failure of their fuel pump/filter unit for a new model fuel tank. In the past they used a Ã ½Ã¢â¬ gasket on the old fuel tank, when GM changed the design, this became a problem. There was no longer a Ã ½Ã¢â¬ gasket, thus causing problems for the pump to retract all the way to the top flange of the pump unit. The top flange has a rough grove on top where the fuel tube comes in contact. I was asked by Bosch to investigate a more durable abrasive sleeve then the one they currently using. Bosch uses a GPT-483 3/8Ã¢â¬ (131,843 cycles to failure) sleeve for their current application. By the use of SAE ARP 1536 test method, I was able to make a few recommendations on Sofanou sleeving products. The product line that I recommended is; Nu-Guard NTW-WR Ã ½Ã¢â¬ (1,163,483 cycles to failure), Nu-Guard DPT 3/8Ã¢â¬ nylon 6, 6 (new to Sofanou product line) (356,425 cycles to failure), and Nu-Guard N 3/8Ã¢â¬ (295,198 cycles to failure). On August 20th I met and brain-stormed with Bosch Engineers; Martin Kling (Engineering Manager), John Lennen (Engineering Unit Manager), Ralph Gordinier (Sr. Program Lead Engineer), Ted Perniciaro (Senior Engineer), Mike Zick (Engineer), Dave Toutant (Component Specialist), Dave Brown (Senior Test Engineer) and Rich Minix (Lead Technician) on developing a test that would reflect the current process problem. Similar to the ARP 1536 test method, we decided to use an aggressive saw blade for a tear test for the three different products. Entela Testing was in charge of this test project. On August 23rd, Andrew Gleason (Engineering 1) from Entela coordinated the testing and reported: Nu-Guard NTW-WR Ã ½Ã¢â¬ @ 2,200 cycles to fail, Nu-Guard DPT 3/8Ã¢â¬ nylon 6, 6 @ 750 cycles to fail, Nu-Guard and Nu-Guard N 3/8Ã¢â¬ @ 410 cycles to fail.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
The economics of United States health care has been through many changes over its history. There are multiple factors to what caused the changes to the health care system over time with changes such as technological advances in medicine and surgical devices, new medical discoveries, and financial laws pertaining to health care. Just as with other businesses, the health care industryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy would depend upon supply and demand of their services. Throughout the time that health care has been undergoing these changes, it remains that the economical situation in health care has been the main focal point to how well that health organizations in the United States will perform. In the early 1900s doctors were just beginning to cease being expected to offer care for free, medical care costs were finally becoming emphasized, and insurances were just getting involved into the health care industry (PBS, 2012). The idea of a national health care policy is first introduced by President Truman in 1945, he would be denied by the American Medical Association campaign against the idea. Eventually in 1960 the American Medical Association would develop a national policy as well that would be signed into law by President Johnson and would become the foundations for Medicare and Medicaid (Rebelo 2007). As of the past two decades, the cost of health care have rapidly been on the rise (PBS, 2012). As new medical discoveries occurred in health care and technology advanced, physicians became more capable of treating patients for their illnesses. Financing in medical organizations is important so that they may afford to do more research and obtain better technology, at the moment the health care industry is 17% of the United StateÃ¢â¬â¢s Gross Domestic Product only expecting to rise even more as time continues. Majority of the funding for the health care industry is received through the government through Medicare and Medicaid programs. The rest of the funding is being provided by private investors. To understand how well that health care industries are doing, researchers evaluate the elasticity or inelasticity of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s products. If it shown to be elastic, the organization is doing well selling the product or service which as the supply to it decreases, the price will rise. Inelasticity is likely showing that it is not performing as well, organizations are either uncertain about raising prices as the supply drops or the population is not willing to pay more for the service. They will also look at the microeconomics and macroeconomics to see how they are affecting the industryÃ¢â¬â¢s economic situation. Microeconomic will focus on how smaller or more particular aspects in the economy are affecting price-cost relationships. Macroeconomics will look at the economic situation as the entire country as a whole to examine what effects that may be causing. The health care industryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy continues to be a strong focus in the United States economy as even more focus is being poured into evaluating the health care policy situation within the United States and funding relating to it. The government programs that have been created with the health care industry are still in operation and being reformed to make adjustments that are as suitable as possible to the nation in terms of quality and affordability, attempting to offer the best care and technology possible while making it available to as many as possible without costing the country so much. Economists in the United States are examining the microeconomic and macroeconomic markets to help determine the performance of the industries and what course of action will be taken, though the spending on health care in the past few years has become a large issue for the United States. Through history with the start of health care economics to the current time, funding has been a large focusing issue in the United States taking a large portion of the nations gross domestic product, far surpassing that of other nations and will continue to be a main focusing issue for economists and political debates.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Conservatism does not have one single viewpoint or stance on human nature or imperfection as Conservatism as a whole encompasses different strands or beliefs within it. For example One Nation conservatives have a different philosophy on human imperfection than New Right conservatives do. One Nation conservatives hold the belief that we as humans are: greedy and have a limited capacity for altruism, a complex mix of emotions and contradictory motivations making us irrational, not totally consistent and are at balance the majority of the time with corruption. They believe that our inherent imperfect human nature stems from original sin, the Christian Belief. This shows a wholesome negative outlook on human nature. The New Right on the otherÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This means that essentially they crave social order ahead of liberty. This way of prioritising social order over liberty is a view also taken by Thomas Hobbes in his work Leviathan, in which he talks of the sacrifice of but a few rights for the assurance of protection from the government. In this way, human imperfection can be seen to link to the other conservative concepts of Hierarchy and Authority Ã¢â¬â because of the fact that humans are inherently imperfect, they need a structured hierarchy to protect them and keep them in line. Conservatives, in this way believe in strong punishment as it can act as a deterrent to others doing the same crime. A structured hierarchy, protecting citizens and individuals lower down the chain link to the conservative theory of the Ã¢â¬Ënoblesse obligeÃ¢â¬â¢ which is where the rich or those higher up have a social obligation to help the less well off. Similarly Conservatives also believe that some are natural leaders, like those in positions of power, and some are inferior as a result of their imperfect qualities and are therefore not worthy of being a leader. Secondly, traditional conservatism holds close the belief that we are morally flawed, which again is a highly pessimistic view of human nature. Thomas Hobbes was also in support of this idea, deeming humans to be innately selfish and greedy with not possibility of being perfectible. He can be quoted as saying we want Ã¢â¬Ëpower after powerÃ¢â¬â¢, meaning that once weShow MoreRelatedThe Importance of Demography to Development11868 Words Ã |Ã 48 Pageshowever, have a long history and can trace their origins to a mixture of common human knowledge and philosophy. Sociology as a scientific discipline emerged in the early 19th century as an academic response to the challenge of modernity: as the world was becoming smaller and more integrated, peoples experience of the world was increasingly atomized and dispersed. Sociologists hoped not only to understand what held social groups together, but also to develop an antidote to social disintegration. The termRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words Ã |Ã 922 PagesPerspectives John McAuley, Joanne Duberley and Phil Johnson . This book is, to my knowledge, the most comprehensive and reliable guide to organisational theory currently available. What is needed is a text that will give a good idea of the breadth and complexity of this important subject, and this is precisely what McAuley, Duberley and Johnson have provided. They have done some sterling service in bringing together the very diverse strands of work that today qualify as constituting the subjectRead MoreExploring Corporate Strategy - Case164366 Words Ã |Ã 658 Pagesparticularly regarding sustainable competitive advantage and resources, and corporate strategy, particularly regarding diversiÃ¯ ¬ cation and internationalisation. There are also issues of ownership and organisation. In the end, the fundamental question is: what future for the Ministry? Ã¢â" Ã¢â" Ã¢â" In 1991, 28-year-old James Palumbo invested Ã £225,000 (Ã¢â°Ëa340,000) of his own capital into a new dance club located in an old South London bus depot. As an old Etonian (the UKÃ¢â¬â¢s most elitist private school), a graduate
Friday, December 27, 2019
Summary: Chapter 1 The novel opens in the Central London Hatchery and Conditioning Centre. The year is a.f. 632 (632 years Ã¢â¬Å"after FordÃ¢â¬ ). The Director of Hatcheries and Conditioning is giving a group of students a tour of a factory that produces human beings and conditions them for their predestined roles in the World State. He explains to the boys that human beings no longer produce living offspring. Instead, surgically removed ovaries produce ova that are fertilized in artificial receptacles and incubated in specially designed bottles. The Hatchery destines each fetus for a particular caste in the World State. The five castes are Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Epsilon. Gamma, Delta, and Epsilon undergo the Bokanovsky Process whichÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Fetuses destined for work in the tropical climate are heat conditioned as embryos; during childhood, they undergo further conditioning to produce adults that are emotionally and physically suited to hot climates. The artificial process, says the Director, aims to make individuals accept and even like Ã¢â¬Å"their inescapable social destiny.Ã¢â¬ The Director and Henry Foster then introduce Lenina Crowne to the students. She explains that her job is to immunize the fetuses destined for the tropics with vaccinations for typhoid and sleeping sickness. In front of the boys, Henry reminds Lenina of their date for that afternoon, which the Director finds Ã¢â¬Å"charming.Ã¢â¬ Henry goes on to explain that future rocket-plane engineers are conditioned to live in constant motion, and future chemical workers are conditioned to tolerate toxic chemicals. Henry wants to show the students the conditioning of Alpha Plus Intellectual fetuses, but the Director, looking at his watch, announces that the time is ten to three. He decides there is not enough time to see the Alpha Plus conditioning; he wants to make sure the students get to the Nurseries before the children there have awakened from their naps. Summary: Chapter 2 The Director leads the group of students to the Nurseries. Posted on a notice board are the phrases, Ã¢â¬Å"Infant Nurseries. Neo-Pavlovian Conditioning Rooms.Ã¢â¬ The students observe a Bokanovsky group of eight-month-old babies wearing the Delta casteÃ¢â¬â¢sShow MoreRelated Brave New World Essay962 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBrave New World Aldous HuxleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Brave New World is a fictitious story about a future utopian society where people are mass-produced in laboratories. People have no emotions in this world where drugs and promiscuous sex are greatly encouraged. People are given labels according to their pre-natal intelligence assignment. These different classes all have specific roles within society and nobody is unhappy with their place. The Brave New World he was a fictitious story that sets upRead MoreBrave New World Government1086 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesconflicting in their particular perspectives. In the novel Brave New World by Aldous Huxley, the government has chosen to preserve the interest of state and this dystopia is the result of mankind choosing the wrong faction in the conflict of interest. To clarify, the principles, theories and arguments presented here in are democratic in orientation and not communistic, because the arguments aim toward freedom and rights. Those in control in Brave New World have misguided the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s populace into dystopiaRead MoreBrave New World Essay1091 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesA smart, scholarly and skillful author named Aldous Huxley once said Ã¢â¬Å"Technological progress has merely provided us with more efficient means for going backwardsÃ¢â¬ . The advancement, improvement and the wrong use of technology has affected the world in a really negative way. When technology first started to improve and become more advanced was during the WW1 and WW2, which caused the most destructive wars in human history. For example the wrong use of technology led the Americans to produce one ofRead MoreBrave New World : Society1306 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe novel, Brave New World predicts what the future may hold, modern USA may show many similarities but also many differences. Differences such as the use of drugs, pleasure or self- indulgences, and technological advances. In the novel, society follows a system in which the higher level people get treated with more respect, almost like in modern USA. As society in Brave New World focuses on unity, stability, and identity, modern people focus on love, family, and success. Brave New World has fiveRead MoreBrave New World: Utopia?1430 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesII 26 April 2006 Brave New World: Utopia? When one envisions a utopian society, religion, the prevailing presence of social class segregation, and abusive drug use are not typically part of such a surreal picture. These attributes of society, which are generally the leading causes of discontent among its members, are more so the flaws an idealist would stray from in concocting such hypothesis for a more perfect world; not so for Aldous Huxley. In his novel, Brave New World, these ideals areRead MoreThe Novel Brave New World 1346 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTitle In the beginning of the novel, the title Brave New World was an optimistic phrase, first used by John the Savage to declare what a wondrous new world he had discovered in the World State. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËO brave new world,Ã¢â¬â¢ he repeated. Ã¢â¬ËO brave new world that has such people in it.Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Huxley 130) As the novel progresses, the atmosphere accompanying that phrase gets heavier and heavier, when finally on page 190, the phrase is used mockingly; Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËO brave new worldÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢ In his mind the singing words seemed to changeRead MoreIrony in Brave New World1022 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesyou know there is a monster in the closet, but the character does not). Many examples of irony are given in the novel Brave New World, a novel set in the future where humans are biologically engineered and conditioned for their role in society. The novel exemplifies irony because even though they have norms and regulations set, most people tend to not follow them, includi ng the world leaders. In the first couple of chapters, Lenina, a young woman, is introduced. When we first meet her, we learn thatRead MoreAnalysis Of Brave New World 970 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesManeth Chan The characters in Brave New World are all conditioned in their ways. Even John himself has been conditioned. Brave New World is set in a future London after horrible wars, the aftermath of which leads the government to condition everyone and everything. Bernard Marx, Helmholtz Watson, and Lenina Crowne have all been conditioned from the time they were in the tube to their current everyday lives. Conditioning never really stops; it just takes different forms. John how was raised byRead MoreBrave New World And The Island898 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesImagine a perfect world where everything is controlled; your job, your everyday life, even your thoughts. You would never have to think about anything ever again, but Aldous Huxley, the writer of Brave New World and Michael Bay, the director of The Island, both attempt to depict the dangers of this Ã¢â¬Å"utopiaÃ¢â¬ . Although Brave New World and The Island both successfully communicate satire, Brave New World is better at eliciting people to think and change. In both Brave New World and The Island, one aspectRead MoreExploration Of A Brave New World1131 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages2015 Exploration of a Brave New Individual Envision a world without despair, and everything is designed a specific way. Total freedom and perfection. Utopia is an imagined place or state of things in which everything is perfect. Values are the determining factor to what inhabits a perfect society. Does this pertain to individual freedom, or is freedom living by societal norms? Aldous Huxley exposes these factors through his futuristic literary masterpiece Brave New World. Society is controlled
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Failing Expectations on Future Generations Is every relationship perfect? Eric Swanson asked individuals about their marriage and their responses were surprising. Ã¢â¬Å"Amazingly, and consistently nearly 97 percent of married couples answer, Ã¢â¬Å"very happyÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"pretty happyÃ¢â¬ ¦ A mere 3-4 percent today would say they are Ã¢â¬Å"not too happyÃ¢â¬ (Swanson). True love is supposed to last a lifetime, but for the three percent remaining of unhappy couples results in divorce. Divorce is a negative decision because children develop stress and unstable futures; nevertheless we can solve the issues of divorce by visiting marriage counselors, communicating with one another, and partaking in trail marriages Growing up with divorced parents can have a negative effect on children. Ã¢â¬Å"It diminishes childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s future competence in all five of societyÃ¢â¬â¢s major or tasks institutions: family, school, religion, marketplace and governmentÃ¢â¬ (Fagon and Churhi ll 1). Children growing up with divorced parents are very shy and depressed. The parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ separation take negative tolls on children because it causes them to rebel at an early age while lacking knowledge between right and wrong. Children who rebel often get involved in dangerous activities such as: under aged smoking, drinking, unprotected sex, and crime. The childÃ¢â¬â¢s rebellious acts causes him to have disadvantages in his future because the parents are focused more on their issues than their childÃ¢â¬â¢s. Although children have no control over their parentsÃ¢â¬â¢Show MoreRelatedCritique Essay1005 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesoutlines: The millennial generation includes individuals born between 1980 through 2000. These individuals are new college graduates that make up the major of the workforce. This group had a number of names associated with them such as Boom Echo and Generation Y Ã¢â¬â ever since this group started appeared, causing enrollment capacity issues at public school districts around the country. This millennial generation has caught the eye of many researchers because the millennial generation is looked upon Ã¢â¬Ëas aRead MoreCorrupt School System Essay1498 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSchool System Education in the U.S. is failing, so bad in fact, that other countries are going to start taking advantage of us, and pass us as they excel in innovation with us left out, lagging behind. The general schooling system of the United States has been around for one hundred and fifty years, with almost all the same teaching methods, grading and student expectations taking place through it all. Isn t it perplexing that the system multiple generations were taught in hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t changed while everythingRead MoreThe Achievement Gap Has Affected Students For Many Years797 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswill benefit the staff, teachers, and school officials and more importantly the students. Focusing on the achievement gap and the lack of resources tends to be the main topic of educational researchers. What about the students? We are failing the future generation; we know the elements that are in place to sustain students to pursue their aspirations. However, we fail to acknowledge the schools who used all the suggestions from researchers to shorten the achievement gap. Unfortunately, the studyRead MoreImproving Student Academic Achievement Gap908 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesresearchers. Researchers often forget what is most important the students. How do students feel about their teachers, counselors, support system? Little to no research address students concerns or experiences of public schoolsÃ¢â¬â¢ failure. We are failing our future generation; we know the elements that are in place to sustain students to pursue their aspirations. However, we fail to acknowledge the schools who used all the suggestions from researchers to shorten the achievement gap. Unfortunately, the studyRead MorePublic School And Why Should They Be Kept993 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswill be the starting point that may determine the future of their precious Ã¢â¬Å"angelsÃ¢â¬ . Charter schools have stood out to most parents because of their outstanding results or have been excelled in a certain neighborhood; therefore, many people think that charter schools are excellent, and they should be increasing if parents are really care about their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s future. However, is that really the case? Are all public schools failing our expectation and wasted taxes money on the pointless system thatRead MoreÃ¢â¬Å"Ghetto GospelÃ¢â¬ By Hugely Worshiped, King Of Rap, 2Pac1300 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshas a major effect of their own communities. Just after separation the next theme would be how the older generation has been unable to help the new generation and may have even pushed them even further down. The decisions of the older generations have been detrimental to the growth of the ne w generations. Within this song 2Pac leaves his hopes for a better world, hoping that the next generation can fix the world before it is to late pleading, Ã¢â¬Å"I hope we see the light before its ruinedÃ¢â¬ (1:21). Ã¢â¬Å"GhettoRead MoreChallenges Faced By First Generation Students1547 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespercent of the United States is made up of first-generation students? (Earl, 1987.) Being given the label Ã¢â¬Å"first-generation,Ã¢â¬ by definition, means that a student is the first in his or her family to attend and finish college with a college degree. In Hicks 2006 study, he compared the educational barriers of first-generation students to those non-first-generation students. As a result, Hicks found out the first-generation students had different expectations of college, poor academic abilities, lack ofRead MoreIs Canada A Multicultural Country?1182 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesvery confusing for the next generation to know what is expected of them. It has been said that t he next generation lacks hope for the future, and I feel that as a society we are failing in our responsibility to the next generation because of our inability to agree on how to raise our children. My heart aches for the youth of our nation, they are our future leaders and innovators and they are anxious and depressed, having very little structure to help them see a bright future. In the present time, oneRead MoreEssay Problems in the Educational System for Boys1559 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescurriculum. The way teachers are teaching the boys and the type of material chosen is what is failing the boys. The rules in schools are tougher not allowing any leeway for any missteps should any mistakes happen, pushing boys out of schools. There are many boys that have to choose between family or school. This paper discusses the problems that are seen in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s schools. What are the reasons that boys are failing to graduate, along with possible fixes to the systems to help the boys regain graduationRead MoreBUILD BRIDGES NOT WALLS Essay1450 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshence with changing norms for social status and respect has set people into a mad frenzy of desires. With these changing definitions, people now are unable to define needs, wants desires. What maybe was a luxury in yesterdayÃ¢â¬â¢s generation is a need in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s generation. But what people fail to understand is Ã¢â¬Å"Desires are many, needs are few.Ã Needs can be fulfilled; desires never. A desire is a need Bone crazy.Ã It is impossible to fulfill it.Ã The more you try to fulfill it,Ã the more it goes on asking
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: To be able to identify the concept and principles associated with Corporate Social Responsibility To be able to present and interpret the gathered data in order to develop logical lines of arguments based on basic theories and concepts of Corporate Social Responsibility To be able to present the results of research in a structured way and with coherent arguments To be able to deliver prospective recommendations based on the result of research. Answer: Introduction The report presents an analysis of corporate social responsibilities of a company in UK. The chosen company for the analysis is BT Plc of UK. Corporate social responsibilities are important aspects of a business in present days. In the globalisation era, the companies try to maintain their own CSR in the business operation. The sole purpose of a business organisation is not profit making. An organisation has several other social, economical and environmental responsibilities in business process. The study considers different aspects of CSR for a company. The BT Plc is a telecommunication company operating in UK. The company has responsibilities for societies as well for stakeholders. For a telecommunication company, the corporate social responsibilities are regarding facilitating good communication service to the customers, application of innovative technologies, developing value chain in business (Navi 2012). Protection of customer rights is another important responsibility of a telecommunication company. Among the different aspects of CSR, one of the important aspects is responsibility to provide eco friendly service to the users and society. Business organisations often undertake charitable activities to improve society, especially where the company is located. Definitions of CSR and importance of different aspects Definitions of CSR In different literatures, corporate social responsibilities have been described in many ways. There are disparities in the definitions of CSR. Different organisations interpret the meaning of CSR in different ways. Navi (2012) mentioned that, CSR is the organisations concern on the issues beyond its business basic requirements such as economic, legal or technical. On the other hand, Aguinis and Glavas (2012) argued that CSR is the social responsibilities of an organisation to maintain legal, ethical and economic aspects in the business process. Crane et al (2013) mentioned different definitions of CSR in their research paper. According to international labour organisation, CSR is a method of presenting the impact of companys business operation on the society. CSR reflects the values and principles of the organisation. Department for Business, Innovation and Skills of UK describes CSR as temporary actions taken by an organisation ensuring least legal requirements to benefit both own business and wider society. In the view of World Economic Forum, the global corporate organisations are acts in their self interest as the prosperity of the organisation depends on social, economic and environmental factors. Aguinis and Glavas (2012) cited that companies involve themselves in the corporate social responsibilities due to pressure and expectations from different stakeholders. The stakeholders can be share holders, customers or media. Stakeholders have three main interests to engage companies into CSR. The interests may be driven by self-interest, or emerge from the relationship among different interest group or may be moral. Moral interest comes from maintaining ethical standard in business process. Importance of different aspects of CSR Corporate social responsibilities have several dimensions in both individual level and institutional level. Servaes and Tamayo (2013) presented a structure of CSR for an applicable for an organisation. The corporate value of an organisation is associated with the customers, suppliers, employees and shareholders. In the view of Bowen (2013), there are three aspects of CSR, which are economic, social and environmental aspects. Figure 1: Different dimensions of CSR (Source: Bowen 2013) Economic dimension of CSR Understanding economic aspect is important to assess impact of economic variable in the operation of the organisation. In past days, economic aspects are often misunderstood as financial impact on the organisation. Economic aspect in not only the considerations of companys financial matter or recording employment data, rather it is the considerations of impact of companys operation on the greater community and the stakeholders (Cornelissen 2014). A business organisation is definitely a profit making organisation. However, operation of the organisation has some economic values. It contributes in countrys GDP and takes part in economys growth process (Crane et al. 2013). Multiplier effect: The activity of the organisation has impact on employees, consumes, suppliers and the wider environment in which the company operates. If the organisations performance in current period is good, it has prospect to get better investment opportunity in long run. The investment can be made for the structural development of the company and for the well being of the employees. If there is development of the company, dividends of the shareholders and the income of the employees increase (Hopkins 2012). Therefore, standard of living of the employees improves. As the income of the employee increases, demand for goods and services rises. This multiplier effect further influences other industries to increase their production. This chain effect increases the output of the whole economy and contributes in the growth process of the economy (Cheng et al. 2014). Therefore, economic aspects of CSR in present context are very much important. Tax effect: Corporation tax is a major source of income of the government of an economy. The tax collected from the corporate is used for the social well being. Therefore, it is the responsibility of every corporate to pay the tax properly as it is a part of CSR (Kitzmueller and Shimshack 2012). Social dimension of CSR Social aspects of CSR are now gets attention in most of the organisations. The organisations participate in many social activities now a day. Sometimes, corporations engage themselves directly or indirectly in poverty reduction programme or any social awareness program. They sponsor different non profit organisation or NGOs. The progress of the company depends on the health of the society (Homburg et al 2013). They take part in social welfare by recruiting people from diversified culture or socially deprived people. The organisations often sponsors sport events to encourage local community as sport has important role in social development (Asif et al. 2013). Environmental dimensions In present decades, sustainable development is major concern for every economy. As per sustainable development goals set by United Nations, every public, private organisations and government need to take part in the welfare of civil society (un.org, 2016). Natural resource consumption affects the sustainable development of the economy and the world. Environment oriented activities, cleaner production, maintaining ecological footprint is part of environmental dimensions of CSR. Application of CSR on BT Plc Being a leading telecom company in UK, BT Plc has immense responsibility towards society. The aspects of CSR for a telecommunication company are providing uninterrupted mobile networking, facilities of emergency communication, technological development etc. Moreover, BT Plc is has added responsibility in the form of contribution in growth of UK. Protection of rights of customers, meeting needs of them, supplying quality service etc is social dimensions of CSR of a telecommunication company (Brammer et al. 2012). BT Plc has also responsibilities of their employees such as safeguarding the interest of the employees; maintain labour laws of UK, encouraging employees to engage themselves in decision making process of management. It is part of BTs CSR to do business ensuring highest productivity of allocated resources. Maximum productivity subject to efficient utilisation of resources is aspect of CSR of BT Plc. Efficient utilisation of resources reduces carbon emission in the society (BTconferencing.com, 2016) CSR model used by BT Plc Figure 2: CSR model followed by BT (Source: btplc.com, 2016) The goal of BT Plc is to achieve three goals mentioned above by 2020. There are two main dimensions of the CSR of BT, which are social and environmental aspects. Social dimensions of CSR There is a supporters club in BT, which is a part of charitable initiative of BT. This club encourages people to take part in sports with the aim of improving lives of people. This initiative has been taken by management of BT to improve lives of millions of young people globally. The company has sports channel, which collects money from the customers, who wishes to join the sports club (btplc.com, 2016). The donation is used to help the people, who face economical, social or physical challenge in life. The donations are used for disable children, raising employment. The company also arranges programme, which engages young people in community services. BT helps the international projects of educational and health organisation. The organisations, which use football or motorbike to reach the socially deprived children or to save life of people in isolated village, get helps from BT. This Company engages its employees in volunteering process of social activity such as fund raising proce ss. During 2014, the company took a project named Challenge Africa project, which had objective to build a primary school in Kenya (btplc.com, 2016). The project involved the employees of BT, which used the management, leadership skills of employee. The Challenge Africa project had another dimension such as introducing employees with different culture of a developing country. Engaging employees for the benefit of the community has great social face. Along with this, maintaining high ethics in business operation and supply chain standard are parts of CSR of BT. Environmental dimension of CSR The management of BT tries to maintain a good business practices. They maintain high ethical standard by protecting human rights and data security. They aim to reduce carbon intensity about 80% by 2020. In order to reduce carbon footprint, they have developed a carbon calculator. This tool helps the user to know the amount of carbon reduction by using ICT products. During 2005, the company signed a green energy contract, which aimed to use of environment friendly resources such as wind and solar power, hydroelectricity and wave. The objective of the company is to provide an integrated network platform, which is energy efficient with higher capacities. Use of energy saving technology gives advantage to the company in carbon reduction (Korschun et al. 2014). Advantage of CSR policies The CSR model of BT Plc has helped the company to grow business globally. The social and environmental dimension of CSR policies has been able to improve customer satisfaction. Increasing customer satisfaction has helped to development of business. Engagement of long term business goal with good CSR practice and sustainability has been able to reduce brand damage. CSR policies have helped the company to develop good leadership approach in the business process. Moreover, the company has been successful to replace traditional techniques of audit by comprehensive assessment techniques in business model. This company has developed a good relation with the suppliers by taking strategy of using renewable energy in production. Reduction in carbon emission has helped collaboration with suppliers. Furthermore, the management method gives the company and the suppliers, the scope of quality matter inspection (Baumann-Pauly et al. 2013). This strategy helps to strengthen supply chain management of BT Plc. Disadvantages of CSR The company faces some risks regarding CSR policies. The risks are regarding working condition of supply chain. The BT Plc has global presence. Therefore, the company faces risks as in some countries; the labour and environment regulations are not enforced strongly (Lee et al. 2012). Therefore, the company has to face risks about the product and service standard below global acceptable level. There are risks regarding health and safety of the employees. Risk is appeared in the form of climate change. Change in climate may hinder the process of achieving environmental sustainability goal of the company. Being a multinational company, BT Plc has to maintain a diversified culture in the organisation. Hence, the company may face risks if employees cannot adjust themselves with the multicultural aspects of the company. This can affect the performance of the company in the competitive market. Furthermore, failing to comply with diversity can reduce business reputation of the company. Recommendations BT has good CSR practice in business operation. Although having high valued CSR, the company faces some risks. Improvement of CSR policies can mitigate the risks. In order to perform better, the company can ask the external stakeholders associated with business to evaluate companys performance regarding CSR practice. The stakeholders can rate the BT Plcs social activities and environmental practices. Rating by community is more reliable compared to its internal rating. The company gives more importance to environment and social aspects. Economic aspects of CSR are comparatively neglected in the companys CSR model. Therefore, incorporation of economic dimension in the CSR model can be recommended to the company to improve business performance in global context. The company can emphasis on return on investment aspects. In order to do this, BT Plc can improve human resource management policies. Increase in employee satisfaction decreases the rate of employee turnover in the organisation. Strict governance policies sometimes increase dissatisfaction of the employees in the workplace (Moser and Martin 2012). Hence, less formalisation can create friendly environment in the work place and a good organisational culture. Minimisation of waste and best use of resource increases CSR of the company towards society. This corporate strategy may give the company a competitive advantage in the market. The company engages the employees in the social development process. Other stakeholders such as customers, suppliers and shareholders can also take part in the social dimensions of CSR. Active involvement of stakeholders in the business process improves the relationship, which helps the company to grow in long term. The company faces legal risks in fulfilling CSR. Collaborations with consultants, who have knowledge regarding environment and other legal issues, can help the company to reduce risks. Conclusions The report discusses different aspects of corporate social responsibilities of a business organisation. The study has been conducted on BT plc of UK. This company is a telecommunication company operating in UK. The company has global exposure. Therefore, it has different dimensions of business. Corporate social responsibilities model incorporates different stakeholders of a company such as customer, suppliers, shareholders etc. Three dimensions of CSR have been described in this report. Three dimensions are economic, social and environmental. Now a day, these three aspects have become unavoidable part of a business. Different definitions of CSR have been described in this study. Different organisations and companies describe CSR from different angles. The CSR model followed by BT Plc has also three dimensions. The company gives emphasis more on social and environment aspects of CSR. CSR model of BT Plc incorporates customers, suppliers and environment in the model. Connecting society with business process in one of the philosophy of companys CSR. In order to do this, the company engages itself with different social welfare project both locally and globally. It engages itself with social projects such as encouraging young people to involve with different sports. The company donates the fund collected from different social activities in charity. The donations are used for the improvement of lives of socially and economically vulnerable people. It has conducted a project to build a primary school at a socially backward region of Africa. This activity signifies high CSR practice by BT Plc. The company has target to reduce 80% carbon emission by 2020. Although the company maintains good ethics and CSR in business, it faces some risks in CSR practices. There is a risk of climate change, which can negatively affect the sustainable development policy of the company. Hen ce, some recommendations have been made for the improvement of the future CSR in the company. References Aguinis, H. and Glavas, A., 2012. What we know and dont know about corporate social responsibility a review and research agenda.Journal of management,38(4), pp.932-968. Asif, M., Searcy, C., Zutshi, A. and Fisscher, O.A., 2013. 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